Policy and Advocacy

Marijuana Arrest Crusade: Racial Bias and Police Policy in New York City (1997- 2007) by Harry G. Levine and Deborah Peterson Small (New York Civil Liberties Union, April 2008).
As featured in the New York Times article on May 1, 2008 by Jim Dwyer, this report deals with the arrests of over 374,900 people for low level misdemeanor marijuana offences. The report shows that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be booked for these crimes than whites.

Empty Beds and Wasted Dollars – Transforming Juvenile Justice. Report from the New York State Office of Children and Families Services (NYS Office of Children & Family Services).
This report reviews the measures taken by the New York State Office of Children and Families Services Commissioner Gladys Carrion to close underutilized residential facilities as part of an ongoing restructuring to significantly improve services to troubled children.

Juvenile Justice in New York State. Correctional Authority Bulletin (Fall 2006). See also, Addressing Key Criminal Justice Issues in the 21st Century (Feb. 2007). (
Report: Conflicting Confinement: A Report of the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons (Vera Institute of Justice). (See or for electronic copies of the report.)

Report: Legal Employers Taking the Lead: Enhancing Opportunities for the Previously Incarcerated (The New York City Bar Association Task Force on Employment Opportunities for the Previously Incarcerated, March 2008).
This report focuses on the fact that unemployment may be the most serious of all contributors to the high rate of recidivism in prisons in New York State. Currently, nine out of ten parole violators are unemployed.

A “Second Look” at Crack Cocaine Sentencing Policies: One More Try for Federal Equal Protection by David H. Angeli, 34 American Criminal Law Review 1211 (1997).
The significant increase over the past decade in the number of incarcerated young black males has had a devastating effect on the African American community. With a 40% increase in the number of young black men incarcerated between 1990 and 1997, there is a tremendous segment of the young black male population that has been removed from the job market and the black community. Angeli posits that the culprit for the rise in incarcerations is the federal mandatory minimum sentencing guideline, enacted as part of the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 which differentiates between powder cocaine and crack cocaine, and singles out crack cocaine possession for disproportionately harsher punishment. Angeli cites the findings of two key federal cases, Washington v. Davis, 426 U.S. 229 (1976) and Village of Arlington Heights v. Metropolitan Housing Development Corp., 429 U.S. 252 (1977).


2008 Kids Count Essay and Data Brief: A Road Map for Juvenile Justice Reform (Annie E. Casey Foundation).

The State of Opportunity in America, Executive Summary (The Opportunity Agenda, The Tides Center).
The Opportunity Agenda is a project of The Tides Center and is a new social justice organization devoted to advancing opportunity and human rights in the United States, through strategic communications, research and advocacy.

Custody and Control – Conditions of Confinement in New York’s Juvenile Prisons for Girls. Joint Report of the Human Rights Watch and the American Civil Liberties Union (September 2006).

Federal Bonding Program
Outlines the regulations on bonding of formerly incarcerated people in New York State.

City Bar Justice Center – Prisoner Re-Entry: The Collateral Consequences of Criminal Convictions Forum (October 18, 2006). (

United States Prison Population Sets Record National Hire Network by Legal Action Center.

Report: State of the Prisons, 2002-2003: Conditions of Confinement in 14 New York State Correctional Facilities by Prison Visiting Committee of the Correctional Association of New York.